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Vol. 9. Núm. 46.
Páginas 42-52 (Enero - Febrero 1995)
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Vol. 9. Núm. 46.
Páginas 42-52 (Enero - Febrero 1995)
DOI: 10.1016/S0213-9111(95)71216-X
Open Access
Revisión: Diseños Híbridos de Estudios de Cohortes y de Estudios de Casos y Controles
Review: Hibrid Designs of Cohort Studies and Case-control Studies
Visitas
1919
Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez1,*, María Sillero2
1 Cátedra de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Cantabria. Santander
2 Área de Programas de salud. Delegación de Salud y Consumo. Jaén
Este artículo ha recibido
1919
Visitas

Under a Creative Commons license
Información del artículo
Resumen

Se revisan en su conjunto los diseños híbridos de estudios de casos y controles y de estudios de cohortes. Dentro de su diseño se parte de las características de selección de los dos grupos que se comparan. La selección de los casos requiere la existencia de un sistema de registro o monitorización de la población de base. El tipo de muestreo de la referencia permite identificar los dos grandes tipos de diseños híbridos: el estudio de cohorte y casos (muestreo al inicio del período de riesgo de la población diana) y el estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte (muestreo habitualmente por densidad y emparejado). Se comentan las condiciones que permiten a la odds ratioestimar sin sesgo al riesgo relativo o a la razón de tasas, sin necesidad de asumir la condición de rareza de la enfermedad. Se resumen las ventajas, utilidades e inconvenientes de este tipo de diseños, así como las ventajas relativas entre ellos. Por último, se trazan las directrices generales de su análisis.

Palabras clave:
Diseños híbridos
Estudios de casos y controles
Estudio de cohortes
Summary

Hybrid epidemiologic designs combining elements from case-control studies and cohort studies are reviewed. Firstly, the characteristics of selection of both index group and reference group are commented on. The selection of cases requires a population-based disease registry. The type of selection of reference group permits to identify the main hybrid designs: the case-cohort approach, sampling from the base at the beginning of risk period, and the nested (within acohort) case-control studies, usually with a matched density sampling. The asumptions needed for estimating without bias relative risk or rate ratio via odds ratio and without needing the condition of disease rarity are revised. Advantages, uses, and drawbacks are summarized. Lastly, general guidelines for the analysis of these designs are displayed.

Key words:
Hibrid designs
Case-control studies
Cohort studies
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