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Vol. 16. Núm. 5.
Páginas 425-435 (Septiembre - Octubre 2002)
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Vol. 16. Núm. 5.
Páginas 425-435 (Septiembre - Octubre 2002)
Open Access
Análisis comparado del impacto de las políticas impositivas vía precio en el consumo de tabaco
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J. Pinilla
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jpinilla@empresariales.ulpgc.es

Correspondencia: Jaime Pinilla Domínguez. Departamento de Métodos Cuantitativos en Economía y Gestión. Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Campus de Tafira, s/n. 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.
Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
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Resumen

En este trabajo se analiza cómo el aumento de los impuestos afecta a la demanda de productos derivados del tabaco, en especial a la demanda de cigarrillos. El análisis comparado de los estudios revisados demuestra que las subidas en los impuestos sobre el tabaco se traducen en un aumento de los precios de estos productos. La elasticidad precio de la demanda de cigarrillos en países de ingreso medio y bajo resulta el doble que la de los países de ingresos altos, alrededor de –0,4. Además, y como señal de la naturaleza adictiva de este tipo de consumo, esta demanda se presenta más elástica en el largo que en el corto plazo. El efecto de una subida en los impuestos del tabaco es mayor en los jóvenes, más sensibles a los precios que los fumadores adultos. La evidencia empírica para el caso español sitúa la elasticidad precio de la demanda de cigarrillos a corto plazo en un intervalo que oscila entre –0,5 y –0,3, similar a los encontrados en la bibliografía internacional. Estos datos no ofrecen perspectivas optimistas sobre la potencialidad de las medidas fiscales como herramienta de control del tabaquismo, más allá de sus efectos recaudatorios y compensadores de externalidades. Además, si se consideran las posibilidades de sustituciones entre marcas y el margen estratégico de la industria para compensar los efectos de los impuestos, reducir las demandas y alentar el contrabando, el panorama se presenta todavía más pesimista.

Summary

This paper analyzes the extent to which an increase in tobacco taxes affects the demand for tobacco products, especially for cigarettes. Comparison of the studies reviewed revealed that higher tobacco taxes result in higher tobacco prices. The price-elasticity of cigarette demand in low-and middleincome countries is about double that in high-income countries, about –0.4. Furthermore, because of the addictive nature of tobacco use, demand for tobacco products is more elastic in the long run than in the short run. The effect of higher tobacco taxes is greater on the young, among whom demand is more sensitive to price than among adults. The empirical evidence for Spain estimates the price elasticity of cigarette demand in the short run to be in the range of –0.5 to –0.3, a result which is similar to other studies. These results do not suggest that tax policy is an effective tool for tobacco control, although taxes are useful for their revenue generating potential and for compensating the external costs generated by tobacco consumption. Furthermore, when the possibilities of substitutions among brands and the strategies of the tobacco industry to compensate for the effects of taxes (lowering prices and encouraging cigarette smuggling) are considered, the panorama is even more pessimistic

Palabras clave:
Impuestos sobre el tabaco
Demanda de tabaco/cigarrillos
Adicción
Políticas de control del tabaquismo
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