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Vol. 16. Núm. 6.
Páginas 464-479 (Noviembre - Diciembre 2002)
Open Access
Contaminación atmosférica por partículas y salud en Valencia, 1994-1996
(Particulate air pollution and health in Valencia [Spain] 1994-1996)
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F. Ballester
Autor para correspondencia
ballester_fer@gva.es

Correspondencia: Ferran Ballester. Escola Valenciana d'Estudis per a la Salut (EVES). Joan de Garay, 21. 46017 Valencia
, C. Iñiguez, S. Pérez-Hoyos, J.M. Tenías
Unitat d'Epidemiologia i Estadística. Escola Valenciana d'Estudis per a la Salut (EVES). Conselleria de Sanitat. Generalitat Valenciana
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Resumen
Objetivo

Estimar la asociacion a corto plazo entre los valores de contaminacion atmosferica por particulas en suspension y diferentes indicadores de morbilidad y mortalidad en la ciudad de Valencia.

Metodos

Estudio ecologico de series temporales en el que se relacionan las variaciones diarias en los valores de contaminacion atmosferica por humos negros e indicadores de mortalidad, ingresos hospitalarios y visitas a urgencias en la ciudad de Valencia, durante el periodo 1994-1996. La magnitud de la asociacion se estimo mediante regresion autorregresiva de Poisson utilizando modelos aditivos generalizados. Se examino la forma de la relacion, el efecto retardado de la contaminacion y la posible modificacion de efecto por otros contaminantes o periodos del ano.

Resultados

Existe una asociacion significativa entre los valores de particulas en suspension y varios indicadores analizados en Valencia. La forma de dicha relacion es lineal. Un incremento de 10 εg/m3 en los valores diarios de humos negros se asocio con un incremento del 1,8% (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 0,9-2,7%) en el numero de defunciones del dia siguiente. El mismo incremento en la contaminacion se asocio con un aumento del 1,5% (0,1-2,8%) en las defunciones por causa circulatoria, en un 1,3% (0,0-2,6%) en los ingresos por causas circulatorias y en un 5,4 (0,6-10,4%) en el numero de visitas a urgencias por asma. Esta asociacion no esta confundida por los valores de otros contaminantes. No se encontro asociacion de los humos negros con la mortalidad por enfermedades respiratorias, los ingresos hospitalarios por enfermedades cerebrovasculares ni las visitas a urgencias por enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva cronica (EPOC).

Conclusiones

Este estudio proporciona evidencia de que los valores de particulas en suspension en Valencia se asocian con las urgencias por asma, los ingresos por enfermedades circulatorias y las defunciones diarias. La asociacion encontrada es consistente con los resultados de otros estudios realizados y es coherente con conocimientos recientes sobre los mecanismos fisiopatologicos.

Palabras clave:
Contaminación atmosférica
Partículas en suspensión
Mortalidad
Ingresos hospitalarios
Visitas a urgencias
Enfermedades circulatorias
Asma
EPOC
Series temporales
Summary
Objective

To estimate the short-term association between levels of air pollution due to suspended particulates and several indicators of morbidity and mortality in the city of Valencia, Spain.

Methods

We performed an ecological time-series study. Daily levels of air pollution from black smoke were related to indicators of mortality, hospital admissions, and visits to emergency departments in the city of Valencia between 1994 and 1996. The magnitude of the association was estimated through Poisson autoregression using generalized additive models. The form of the relationship, the delayed effect of pollution, and the possible modification of this effect by other pollutants or periods of the year were assessed.

Results

A significant association was found between levels of suspended particulates and several of the indicators analyzed in Valencia. The form of this relationship was linear. An increment of 10 ìg/m3 in the daily levels of black smoke was associated with an increase of 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 0.9-2.7%) in the number of deaths on the following day. The same increment in pollutant levels was associated with an increase of 1.5% (0.1-2.8%) in deaths from all cardiovascular causes, an increase of 1.3% (0.0-2.6%) in admissions for all cardiovascular diseases and in an increase of 5.4% (0.6- 10.4%) in the number of emergency visits for asthma. This association was not confounded by levels of other pollutants. Black smoke was not associated with mortality from respiratory diseases, with hospital admissions for cerebrovascular diseases, or with emergency visits for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Conclusions

This study provides evidence that levels of suspended particles in Valencia are associated with emergency visits for asthma, hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases, and daily deaths. The association found is consistent with the results of previous studies and fits with recent knowledge of psychopathological mechanisms.

Key words:
Air pollution
Suspended particles
Mortality
Hospital admissions
Emergency visits
Cardiovascular diseases
Asthma
COPD
Time series
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