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Vol. 5. Núm. 24.
Páginas 117-124 (Mayo - Junio 1991)
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Vol. 5. Núm. 24.
Páginas 117-124 (Mayo - Junio 1991)
Open Access
Salud percibida y capacidad funcional de la población anciana no institucionalizada de barcelona*
Perceived Healt and Functional Capacity of The Noninstitutionalized. Elderly Population of Barcelona
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...
Ana Ruigómez**, Jordi Alonso, Josep María Antó
Departament d'Epidemiología i Salut Pública. Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica (IMIM). Barcelona
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Resumen

Con el objetivo de conocer el nivel de salud percibida y la capacidad funcional en las personas ancianas, se realizó un estudio transversal de una muestra representativa de la población no institucionalizada de Barcelona de 65 y más años (n=1.288). incluido en la segunda Encuesta de Salud por Entrevista. Se recogió información sociodemográfica, sobre morbilidad percibida, problemas sensoriales y capacidad funcional (evaluada a través de las actividades de la vida diaria [AVD]).

El 60,3% de los entrevistados manifestó tener una salud «buena» o «muy buena» y el 56% declaró ser capaz de realizar todas las AVD sin dificultad. Las mujeres expresaron peor salud general, y mayor limitación crónica en todos los grupos de edad (p < 0,001). La edad no se asoció significativamente con la salud percibida, pero sí con una mayor limitación en todas las AVD (p< 0,001). Las variables que con mayor fuerza se asociaron a una declaración de salud general «regular», «mala» o «muy mala» son: la coexistencia de trastornos crónicos (OR=3,69 IC95%=2,60–5,25), la actividad restringida (OR=3,25 IC95%=1,38–3,36). Los ancianos con incapacidad en alguna de las AVD básicas eran en su mayoría mujeres y de 75 o más años, y el 10,5% no recibía ninguna ayuda personal.

El presente estudio aporta una descripción del estado de salud y funcional de los ancianos e identifica un grupo de ancianos con necesidades básicas de atención no cubiertas.

Palabras clave:
Ancianos Salud percibida
Capacidad funcional
Actividades de la Vida Diaria. Necesidad de atención.
Summary

In order to explore the perceived health and functional capacity in the elderly, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in a representative sample of the non-institutionalized population aged 65 and over, resident in Barcelona (N = 1,288), and included in the 2nd Health Interview Survey Sociodemographic information was collected, as well as perceived morbidity, sensorial problems and functional capacity (measured by the activities of daily living [ADL]).

Some 60,3% of the elderly reported having «good» or «very good» health, and 56% reported being able to do all ADL without difficulties. Women in general reported a worse perceived health and a higher chronic limitation in each age group (p=0,001). Age was not significnatly associated with perceived health, but was… associated with disability (ADL) (p=0.001), Variables with a stronger association with «poor», «bad» o «very bad» perceived health were: comorbidity (OR=3,69 IC 95%=2,60–5,25), restricted activity (OR=3,25 IC 95% = 1,86–5,66) and incapacity in any of the basic ADL (OR=2,15 IC 95%=1,38–3,36). The elderly who were dependent in any of the basic ADL were more frequently female, 75 or more years old, and in 10,5% of the cases did not receive any personal help.

The present study gives a general description of the health status and functional capacity of the elderly and identifies a group of old people with unmet basic care reeds.

Key words:
Elderly
Perceived health
Functional capacity
Activities of Daily Living
Care need.
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Este trabajo ha sido financiado parcialmente por las becas: Area de Salut Pública. Ajuntament de Barcelona, año 1988. Instituí Municipal d'Investigació Mèdica (IMIM), año 1989.

Copyright © 1991. Sociedad Española de Salud Pública y Administración Sanitaria
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