Journal Information
Vol. 35. Issue S2.
The 3rd International Nursing and Health Sciences Students and Health Care Professionals Conference (INHSP)
Pages S385-S387 (January 2021)
Not available
Vol. 35. Issue S2.
The 3rd International Nursing and Health Sciences Students and Health Care Professionals Conference (INHSP)
Pages S385-S387 (January 2021)
Open Access
Safety risk assessment in construction projects at Hasanuddin University
A. Muflihah Darwisa,
Corresponding author
, M. Furqaan Nai’ema, Yahya Thamrina, Noviponiharwanib, Suci Rahmadania, Fauziah Amina
a Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
b Sanitation Study Program, Muhammadiyah Health Polytechnic, Makassar, Indonesia
This item has received

Under a Creative Commons license
Article information
Full Text
Download PDF
Tables (1)
Table 1. Risk identification results workers at construction in Hasanuddin University.
Special issue
This article is part of special issue:
Vol. 35. Issue S2

The 3rd International Nursing and Health Sciences Students and Health Care Professionals Conference (INHSP)

More info

This study aimed to assess risk of occupational safety and health in one of construction projects at Hasanuddin University.


The research is a descriptive study with an observational approach. The sample in this study were all employees of Construction Projects in Hasanuddin University amounting 80 samples drawn using a purposive sampling method. The data analyzed using AS/NZS 4360 Risk Management Form.


It was found that the types of activities that have an extreme level of risk are eyes exposed to sparks, feet being trampled or punctured by pieces of iron, electrocuted or shorted when using electricity in cutting tools, and exposed to paint or thinner so that breathing is disturbed and skin irritation with a value of each risk level 16. While the activities that have the highest extreme risk level with a risk level value of 20 are the roof frame collapsed and fell when installed.


The highest risk is roof truss installation work with the risk of the roof frame collapsing and falling during the installation.

Risk assessment
Full Text

The construction process is a job that uses a lot of different tools, both automatic and manual. That tool is used in area in a lot of different types of job that can cause a high risk of occupational diseases and incidents. Equipment and machinery in an industry can cause dangers that are not only desired by humans but can also cause adverse health effects and interfere with work performance.1 In Nigeria for example, workers in many companies are exposed to many occupational hazards and air and water pollution control and waste and disposal management.2 A government safety register records 29,685 occupational accidents reported by companies in the Netherlands.3 Employees with occupations where they work with equipments have a five times increased risk in a work accident injury.4 Research conducted by Rahaded shows that the three highest risks, namely: dismantling the formwork column, there is a risk of worker falling with a risk of 7.92, service works and channels there is a risk of landslides digging with a risk index of 7.56, excavation work sloof there is a risk of landslides dug up with a risk index of 6.48.5 According to research conducted by Todingan concluded that there is a significant influence between the application the management of occupational safety and health with the cost of implementing construction projects.6 Simanjuntak's research shows that the OHS Management System can be applied in companies, as evidenced from the results of his research that the attitudes of all employees are in the support category towards the implementation of the OHS Management System and the actions of all employees are in the good category regarding the application of the OHS Management System.7 Other studies also concluded that all OSH Management System variables have a very strong correlation with work accident rates.8

The construction company is responsible for always giving the most excellent in each project development so that can be trusted to be a part of the growth of infrastructure in Indonesia to date by knowing the level of safety risks to workers. Because of the above cases, the researcher conducted research on safety risk assessment in one of the construction projects at Hasanuddin University.


The research is a descriptive study with an observational approach. In this study, the research population used was all workers in one of the construction projects at Hasanuddin University, totaling 203 workers and 80 samples were drawn using a purposive sampling method. Having experience experiencing work accidents during the project. In the process of collecting data, researchers used a questionnaire to conduct interviews with informants. Data collection was carried out using questionnaires and interviews. Primary data is done by interviewing the questionnaire of the research subjects namely informants, and direct observation. Meanwhile, secondary data collection techniques were obtained from reviewing documents and other sources that could be used to support the research process. The data from this study were analyzed using SPSS and Excel programmes which are used to determine the level of safety risks of workers. Data analysis format is adjusted by risk measurement based on AS/NZS (Australian/New Zealand Standard) 4360 Risk Management which includes determining the context of activities to be managed risk, risk identification, risk analysis, and risk evaluation.


The types of risks that have extreme levels are eyes exposed to sparks, feet trampled/punctured by pieces of iron, roof frames collapse and fall during installation, shock/short circuit when using electricity in cutting tools, and are exposed to paint/thinner so that breathing irritated and irritated skin. The highest risk value was found in the type of roof truss installation with the risk of the roof frame collapsing and falling during the installation, which is a value of 20 (Table 1).

Table 1.

Risk identification results workers at construction in Hasanuddin University.

Type of activities  No  Risk  Opportunity  Consequences  Value of risk  Risk level (E: extreme, H: high) 
Manufacturing- Use of welding equipment  Eyes exposed to sparks  16 
- Use of burrs  Cut/scratched by cutting machines and exposed to drilling machine cuttings  12 
  Gas cylinder burns/explodes  12 
Housekeeping  Feet trampled/punctured by pieces of iron  16 
  Eyes exposed to dust/eye irritation, feet stepped on by nails/ceramic splinters and breathing is impaired  12 
Material lifting  Dropped material (material or tool) transported  12 
  Eyes and breathing are affected by material dust  12 
Roof truss installation  The roof frame collapsing and falling during installation  20 
- Use of tower crane  Crew hands/feet pinched during install  12 
  10  Broken belt slings  12 
  11  Worker falls  15 
Galvalume roof/metal installation-Use of tower crane  12  Metal roof fell off during installation  12 
  13  The eye has been exposed to drill bits and dust  12 
  14  Cut, pierced by zinc/spandex and fell  12 
  15  Shock/short circuit when using electricity on the drill tool  12 
Stucco and Plaster- Mixing cement with mixer  16  Exposure to cement material, eye irritation and respiratory distress  12 
  17  The workers’ eyes were splashed with the cement mixture and skin irritants  12 
Ceramic work  18  Scratched/cut  12 
  19  Electric shock/short circuit when using electricity on the cutting tool  16 
  20  Eyes exposed to dust/eye irritation, feet are stepped on by ceramic pieces and breathing is impaired  12 
Painting work  21  Affected people working/passing under him  12 
  22  Scaffolding collapsed and fell  12 
  23  Contact with paint/thinner so that breathing is irritated and skin irritation  16 
Source: Primary Data (2017).

The work of installing or installing the roof truss is done using the Tower Crane tool. Workers who do this work at a height that must have a high level of concentration. Based on the results of research by Mayasari who conducted hazard identification and risk assessment on Tower Cranes, it was concluded that the danger of falling from a height was in the installation and dismantling work of Tower Cranes and when carrying out activities on these tools. This is due to workers being afraid of heights, inexperienced workers working at heights, workers not using body harness.9

Manullang also examines the risk assessment of work safety in the implementation of 20 high-rise building construction projects in Jakarta. Results obtained show that the biggest risk that occurs is the type of accident with the fall of people by 26.59%. Next in a row are falling objects, landslides, collapsing, getting hit/pinched, and being electrocuted by percentages of 18.73%, 16.46%, 15.33%, 14.64%, and 8.26%. Manuaba (1990) argued that excessive working hours, overtime hours beyond the ability limit will accelerate the appearance of fatigue, reduce speed, accuracy, and work accuracy.10 Päivi also revealed that the number of work-related accidents and fatal work-related diseases has increased, but the death rate per 100,000 workers has decreased. There were nearly 360,000 fatal occupational accidents in 2003 and nearly 2 million work-related illnesses that were fatal in 2002. Every day more than 960,000 workers are injured due to accidents. Every day 5330 people die from work-related diseases.11

The results of this risk identification produce 5 risks with extreme levels and 18 risks with high levels. This shows that workers assume all work done at this finishing stage has a high risk. There is no evidence of medium or low-risk work. Workers’ awareness is high enough about the work risks they face at any time. This is of course very supportive in doing work safely. This can also be used as a parameter for the success of the safety of this project personnel who have carried out various occupational safety and health programmes such as safety induction, sign making and installation for occupational safety and health and the environment, safety talk/safety morning talk, daily safety inspection for occupational safety and health and Environment, Safety Patrol, PPE Provision, Monthly Meeting Committee, Safety Award, Licensing/Legal, Training for Full Body Harness, and Occupational Safety and Health Programming and Environment, HIRARC and JSA. The Occupational Safety and Health Programming can increase the knowledge of employee. A study shows that there is an effect education and knowledge can positively reduce injury.12

A research conducted in the same place with this research showed that the Occupational Safety and Health programme cost investment in construction project is categorized as beneficial for the company.13 Research conducted by Aulia, the results of interviews with OHS experts regarding the amount of work accident penalties for construction workers concluded that the penalty for serious accidents without death is IDR 100–250 million and the amount of penalty for accidents in the form of death is IDR 250–500 million.14 All potential hazards have been controlled and meet safety standard limits, thus contributing to the creation of a safe, healthy work environment and smooth production processes, which in turn can reduce the risk of loss and have an impact on increasing company productivity. Companies that can manage risk well are seen as having a sensitive ability to detect risk, have the flexibility to respond to risks and guarantee the capability of resources to take action to reduce the level of risk, while those that are unable to manage risk properly will cause a waste of resources and time and not achieving company goals.15

The benefits of risk management are ensuring business continuity by reducing the risk of any hazardous activity, reducing costs for handling unwanted events, creating a sense of security among shareholders regarding the sustainability and safety of their investments, increasing understanding and awareness of operational risks for each element in the organization/company, and meet the requirements of the applicable laws.16


This study has 23 construction activities that have risks analyzed to find the risk value and risk level. The results found were that 5 construction activities had the highest value of risk and extreme risk level with one of them being the highest among the 5 being the roof frame collapsing and falling during installation activities with a value of risk of 20 and an extreme risk level.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

P. Suma’mur.
Higiene Perusahaan dan Kesehatan Kerja (HIPERKES). Edisi 2.
CV Sagung Seto, (2014),
A.J. Alawode, J.T. Stephen, G.J. Adeyemi.
Health, safety and environmental issues in nigerian manufacturing and processing industries.
J Eng Appl Sci, 3 (2008), pp. 634-641
A.W.M. van Charante, P.G. Mulder.
Reporting of industrial accidents in the Netherlands.
Am J Epidemiol, 148 (1998), pp. 182-190
G.M.H. Swaen, L.G.P.M. Van Amelsvoort, U. Bültmann, et al.
Fatigue as a risk factor for being injured in an occupational accident: results from the Maastricht Cohort Study.
Occup Environ Med, 60 (2003), pp. 88-92
I.N. Rahaded.
Identifikasi dan Pengendalian Serta Analisis Biaya Resiko Terhadap K3 (Keselamatan Dan Kesehatan Kerja) Pada Proyek Pembangunan Universitas Widya Mandala Pakuwon City Surabaya.
EXTRAPOLASI J Tek Sipil, 7 (2014), pp. 169-178
A.A. Todingan.
Pengaruh Penerapan Sistem Manajemen Keselamatan Dan Kesehatan Kerja Terhadap Biaya Pelaksanaan Proyek Konstruksi(Studi Kasus: Manado Town Square 3).
J Sipil Statik, 3 (2015), pp. 373-382
Y.E. Simanjuntak, H.S. Lubis, A.M. Lubis.
Gambaran Pengetahuan, Sikap, dan Tindakan Pekerja pada Bagian Produksi Mengenai Penerapan Sistem Manajemen Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja (Smk3) di PT. Toba Pulp Lestari Porsea Tahun 2012.
Lingkung dan Keselam Kerja, 1 (2012),
D.R. Faizah.
Pengaruh Penerapan Sistem Manajemen Keselamatan Dan Kesehatan Kerja (SMK3) Terhadap Tingkatan Kecelakaan Kerja Konstruksi.
e-Jurnal Matriks Tek Sipil, 1 (2013), pp. 466-471
A.S. Mayasari.
Identifikasi Bahaya dan Penilaian Resiko pada Tower Crane merk Shenyang 96-521 Tipe G25/15 di Proyek Plaza Simatupang PT.
Tatamulia Nusantara Indah Jakarta. Surakarta, (2011),
D.S. Manullang.
Penilaian Risiko Keselamatan Kerja (Safety Risk Assessment) Pada Pelaksanaan Konstruksi Bangunan Tinggi Di DKI Jakarta Dengan Simulasi Monte Carlo.
Universitas Indonesia, (2002),
P. Hämäläinen, K. Leena Saarela, J. Takala.
Global trend according to estimated number of occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases at region and country level.
J Safety Res, 40 (2009), pp. 125-139
Y. Thamrin, D. Pisaniello, C. Guerin, et al.
The emerging workforce of international university student workers: injury experience in an Australian university.
Int J Environ Res Public Health, 15 (2018), pp. 456
F. Nai’em, M. Darwis, Noviponiharwani, et al.
Analysis of work accident cost on occupational safety and health risk handling at construction project of Hasanuddin University the Faculty of Engineering.
Enferm Clin, 30 (2020), pp. 312-316
D. Aulia.
Analisis Penalti Biaya Bagi Kecelakaan Kerja di Proyek Konstruksi Indonesia.
Universitas Indonesia, (2013),
Pupuk Kaltim.
Pedoman Manajemen Risiko. Bontang.
S. Ramli.
Pedoman Praktis Manajemen Risiko dalam Perspektif K3 OHS Risk Management,

Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 3rd International Nursing, Health Science Students & Health Care Professionals Conference. Full-text and the content of it is under responsibility of authors of the article.

Copyright © 2021. SESPAS
Gaceta Sanitaria
Article options
es en

¿Es usted profesional sanitario apto para prescribir o dispensar medicamentos?

Are you a health professional able to prescribe or dispense drugs?