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Vol. 35. Núm. S2.
The 3rd International Nursing and Health Sciences Students and Health Care Professionals Conference (INHSP)
Páginas S288-S290 (Enero 2021)
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Vol. 35. Núm. S2.
The 3rd International Nursing and Health Sciences Students and Health Care Professionals Conference (INHSP)
Páginas S288-S290 (Enero 2021)
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Effect of royal jelly to deal with stress oxidative in preconception women: A literature review
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A. Mustika Fadillah Rizkia, Andi Nilawati Usmana,
Autor para correspondencia
, Indah Rayab, Aliyahc, Andi Dirpand, Aryadi Arsyada, Fendi Fendie, Andi Sumidartif
a Midwifery Study Program, Gaduate School, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
b Chemistry Faculty, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
c Pharmacy Faculty, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
d Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
e Research and Community Service, Wuna Agricultural University, Makassar, Indonesia
f Faculty of Dentistry, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
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Tablas (2)
Table 1. Mineral and vitamin content of royal jelly.7,10
Table 2. The dose and effect of royal jelly.
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Vol. 35. Núm S2

The 3rd International Nursing and Health Sciences Students and Health Care Professionals Conference (INHSP)

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Abstract
Introduction

Oxidative stress that occurs in preconception women can disrupt the reproductive system to cause infertility. The antioxidants contained in royal jelly can overcome oxidative stress due to low antioxidants in the body. The purpose of this study is to examine studies of the content of royal jelly, antioxidant activity, and the effectiveness of royal jelly in dealing with oxidative stress in preconception women.

Method

This research method is an electronic database search using keywords according to questions in research from the online library PubMed, content science, and Science Direct.

Result

a study review conducted in 6 research journals stated that the use of royal jelly as a supplement containing 10-hydroxy-2-decanoic (10-HDA) increases glutathione levels, as well as lipid peroxidation inhibitors.

Conclusion

The effectiveness of royal jelly to overcome oxidative stress in preconception women can be assessed from the content of royal jelly and antioxidant activity that can increase the glutathione levels and inhibit increased lipid peroxidation, which is a sign of oxidative stress.

Keywords:
Royal jelly
Stress
Oxidative stress
Preconception
Texto completo
Introduction

Preconception becomes very important because, at this time, women will prepare themselves before conception occurs. Thus, the fulfillment of nutrition and the mother's psychological condition must be good for giving birth to healthy offspring.1 Fulfillment of good nutrition during the preconception can reduce the risk of complications at the time of conception that will affect the health of the offspring.2 Besides, the state of stress that occurs in women during this preconception also greatly affects the mother's health, which will cause menstrual disorders, PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome), and infertility.3 Oxidative stress is a form of stress that occurs due to the body's lack of antioxidants and high free radicals that will cause damage to the cells.4

Management of oxidative stress that occurs in preconceived women can be done with non-pharmacological therapy, one of which is royal jelly. Royal jelly is another product of bees produced by thick white bees such as milk secreted from the hypopharyngeal gland and mandibular worker bees as food from the queen bee.5 Royal jelly is often referred to as a superfood because it contains complex nutrients, namely fat, water, carbohydrates, protein, amino acids, sugar, iron, calcium, and vitamins. Additionally, royal jelly also contains flavonoids and phenolic acids, which are part of phenolic as an antioxidant.6,7 The complexity of the nutrition content of royal jelly provides pharmacological effects such as antibacterial, anti-tumor, anti-allergic, and anti-inflammatory.8

Several studies have been conducted in discussing the chemical structure, content, bioactivity, and antioxidant examination of royal jelly, which can be used as scientific information on the benefits of royal jelly. However, the explanation of the benefits of the information of the royal jelly as a non-pharmacological therapy in preconception women who experience stress is still very minimal. Thus, this literature review aims to provide information about the effect and benefit of royal jelly against oxidative stress in preconception women.

Method

In searching journals in this literature review, using online libraries to look for journals relevant to the content and benefits of royal jelly in overcoming the stress on preconception women in this literature, namely PubMed, ContentSciendo, and ScienceDirect. In the search for related articles based on keywords in questions in the study. Search keywords consist of; royal jelly, stress, oxidative stress, preconception.

Result

The search for articles that have been done by filtering according to research keywords in the last 5 years acquired 25 articles related to the content of royal jelly and oxidative activity. Then do the filtering of the articles again related to the questions in this study so that 6 articles are appropriate.

  • 1.

    The main content of royal jelly

    Based on Table 1, royal jelly contains 50–70% water, 7–18% carbohydrate, 9–18% protein, 3–8% lipids, 1.5% mineral salts, polyphenols, enzymes, hormones, and vitamins. Royal jelly contains bioactive components consisting of peptides, sterols, and fatty acids such as 10-hydroxy-2-decanoic, which effectively reduce ROS (reactive oxygen species) and hydroxyl radicals.9

    Table 1.

    Mineral and vitamin content of royal jelly.7,10

    Minerals and vitamins  (mg/100g) 
    Potassium  200–1000 
    Magnesium  20–100 
    Iron  1–11 
    Zink  0.7–8 
    Copper  0.33–1.6 
    B1 (thiamin)  0.1–1.7 
    B2 (riboflavin)  0.5–2.5 
    B3 (niacin)  4.5–19 
    B5 (panthothenic acid)  3.6–23 
    B6 (pyridoxin)  0.2–5.5 
    H (BIOTIN)  0.15–0.55 
    Folic acid  0.01–0.06 
  • 2.

    Antioxidant in royal jelly

    Flavonoid is a form of antioxidant in the royal jelly, divided into flavonoids, flavon, flavonol, and dan isoflavonoid.7 The royal jelly contains 23.3±0.92GAEμg/mg total of phenolics and 1.28±0.09REμg/mg of total flavonoid.6 Pinobanksin and organic acids and their esters, for example, octanoic acid, 2-hexanoic acid, their esters, dodecanoic acid, and their esters, 1,2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, and benzoic acid are the main phenolic compounds contained in royal jelly.11

  • 3.

    Royal jelly in dealing with oxidative stress in preconception women

The antioxidant content of royal jelly can overcome oxidative stress due to high free radicals in preconception women. In some studies, royal jelly provides significant protection against the liver and kidneys by reducing lipid peroxidation and increasing glutathione (GSH) as an antioxidant.12 Royal jelly also contains a bioactive component in the form of 10-hydroxy-2-decanoic (10-HDA), which is an anti-inflammatory and can reduce oxidative stress.13 Also, royal jelly can increase the growth and development of follicles that secrete estradiol to stimulate the uterus, increase LH (luteinizing hormone) and ovulation.14,15 Royal jelly contains MRJP 1, which gives a hypercholesterolemia effect that will affect the inhibition of corticosterone synthesis.16

Discussion

The six journal articles in Table 2 explained that giving royal jelly as a supplement can have a significant effect in increasing antioxidant levels to reduce oxidative stress that occurs during preconception.19 Antioxidants usually inhibit ROS production (reactive oxygen species) and bind to free radicals so that they become reactive.14 The antioxidant effect contained in the royal jelly can maintain the increase in glutathione in the blood, which is the primary antioxidant that functions as a detoxifier and regulates the immune system.20 Glutathione is produced from cells directly involved in neutralizing ROS free radicals and maintaining reduced vitamin C and E as exogenous antioxidants.18 In other studies, administering royal jelly with certain doses can increase antioxidants in the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) test and reduce nitric oxidase levels, which can reduce ROS increase by decreasing nitric oxidase levels.12 Besides, an antioxidant activity that maintains elevated levels of glutathione in royal jelly can reduce the increase in lipid peroxidation, which is a sign of oxidative stress.17

Table 2.

The dose and effect of royal jelly.

Author  Purpose  The dose of royal jelly  The effect of royal jelly 
Ghanbari et al. (2016)14  To evaluate the effect of royal jelly as an antioxidant and antidiabetic on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats  100mg/kg BW for 6 weeks orally  The effect of giving royal jelly can cure testicular disorders due to diabetes through the antioxidant content in royal jelly 
Teixeira et al. (2017)17  Evaluation of royal jelly in increasing antioxidants by maintaining the glutathione system and reducing corticosterone levels in the nerve tissue of stressed mice  200mg/kg BW for 14 days  increase antioxidants by rebuilding the glutathione system, reducing lipid peroxidation, and decreasing corticosterone levels by increasing the antioxidant system in the brain 
Altay and Alver (2017)18  To increase antioxidants by rebuilding the glutathione system, reducing lipid peroxidation, and decreasing corticosterone levels by increasing the antioxidant system in the brain  100mg/kg, for 30 days by oral  Royal jelly can increase protein carbonyl (PC) and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) 
Ghanbari et al. (2016)19  To evaluate the effects of royal jelly on serum biochemical alterations and oxidative stress status in liver and pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ) rat  100mg/kg bodyweight for 42 days by oral  Royal jelly can significantly reduce levels of FRAP and CAT as well as high levels of MDA in the liver and pancreas rat 
Shidfar et al. (2015)20  know the effect of royal jelly in increasing antioxidant capacity  1000mg, 3 times daily for 8 weeks  Royal jelly can increase antioxidant capacity in diabetic patients 
Ghanbari et al. (2018)12  The effects of royal jelly on a set of reproductive parameters in immature female rats  100, 200 and 400mg/kg/body weight daily for 14 days  Royal jelly can increase serum levels of ferric reducing antioxidant power and decrease nitric oxide level 
Conclusion

Based on a journal search, using royal jelly as a supplement to increase antioxidants in the body in overcoming oxidative stress that occurs in preconception women is very effective. Several laboratory tests have been done to state that royal jelly given to animals increases glutathione levels as the main antioxidant in the body and can suppress increased lipid peroxidation, reducing oxidative stress.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References
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Identification of a novel hypocholesterolemic protein, major royal jelly protein 1, derived from royal jelly.
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Royal jelly decreases corticosterone levels and improves the brain antioxidant system in restraint and cold stressed rats.
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The effects of royal jelly on the oxidant-antioxidant system in rats with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced breast cancer.
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F. Shidfar, et al.
Does supplementation with royal jelly improve oxidative stress and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients?.
Iran J Public Health, 44 (2015), pp. 797-803

Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 3rd International Nursing, Health Science Students & Health Care Professionals Conference.

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